Surface-water and groundwater hydrology has been a key research area since our Institute was founded. The changing climate is causing major changes in the hydrological regimes of rivers owing to the increased frequency of extreme hydrological events, such as floods and droughts. We therefore investigate the spatio-temporal variability of extreme hydrological events, and explore options for mitigating the adverse consequences of such events by means of adaptation measures, and by changing the form of forest and agricultural land management. Using the results of surface-water and groundwater regime monitoring and those of numerical modelling, we analyse the interactions between groundwater and surface waters. We propose measures designed to protect and underpin the natural functioning of floodplains and wetlands, and to ensure sustainable water use.
modelovanie zrazok a infiltracie v povodi

Rainfall-runoff processes in river basins. We perform comprehensive analyses of rainfall-runoff processes in river basins, and propose adaptation measures for their optimisation in order to mitigate the consequences of climate change. Adaptation measures are designed as nature-based solutions (NBS) with long-term sustainability that aim to increase the ecosystem’s resilience and to reduce the rate of biodiversity loss. We identify the critical areas exposed to intense soil erosion, quantify wash load from the catchment area, and propose measures to mitigate the undesirable effects of sheet erosion. The results of field surveying and numerical modelling are used for analysing the ongoing physical processes and optimising the measures proposed. We apply appropriate water retention measures that aim to enhance the water storage potential of landscape, soil and aquifers by restoring river systems.

Wetland conservation and restoration. We assess the water regimes of wetlands on the basis of field investigations and long-term water regime monitoring in view of the main human pressures. Subsequently, we analyse the ongoing processes in wetlands, using Geographic Information System (GIS) tools and numerical models. Deficits identified in wetland water regimes are taken into account in the design and optimisation of specific restoration measures. In addition, we verify options for wetland restoration within systems of extensive drainage and irrigation canals. We propose nature-based measures that enable the re-establishment and improvement of water regimes.


Hydrological processes in river basins. Intense anthropogenic activities in recent decades have led to the depletion of water supplies in soil aeration zones, which may adversely affect the water resources needed for forest and wetland ecosystems. We conduct field surveys to assess the soil’s water regime using numerical modelling in view of the prevailing hydrological, meteorological and pedological conditions. We propose appropriate restoration measures and recommendations for their optimisation in accordance with the relevant EU directives on water and nature protection.